Varicose veins - what is it? What are varicose veins of the lower extremities

Everyone has heard of the term "varicose veins" or "varicose veins". "But only a few asked the question, 'What are varicose veins? '"Modern sources of information give different and not always unambiguous answers. Varicose veins are the expansion and deformation of blood vessels in the system of superficial veins of the lower extremities due to the weakness of the vein walls and the dysfunction of the venous valves.

what are varicose veins in the legs

Varicose veins of the lower extremities are one of the most common diseases of mankind. According to modern European statistics, this disease affects 10% of modern men and about 30% of women. The data of state statistics for our country correlate with the general European ones. City dwellers suffer from venous pathology as well as village dwellers.

Varicose veins - what is it? How do varicose veins form?

What happens with varicose veins of the lower extremities, unlike healthy ones. The venous system of the lower extremities consists of deep and superficial veins. The deep venous system is crucial for the return of blood to the heart. The deep veins are surrounded by muscle sheaths and resist expansion. Superficial venous vessels do not have such good support. Therefore, under the influence of stress they are subject to pathological changes. The main directions of blood flow from the superficial veins to the deep and further towards the heart and lungs are: perforating veins, large bone and popliteal venous valves.

change in the direction of blood flow in varicose veins

In varicose veins, this process is disturbed, vertical or horizontal reflux occurs (abnormal blood flow), which leads to dilation of the veins of the vein wall due to the constantly increased pressure in the venous system of the superficial veins of the lower extremities. Furthermore, there is a decrease in the speed of blood flow, stagnation in the system of superficial veins, and with increased blood clotting, favorable conditions are created for the formation of blood clots.

Varicose veins - what is it? Varicose veins - systemic pathology

Surely, after reading on many pages dedicated to this problem, you realized that the word "varicose veins" hides a disease - varicose veins of the lower extremities. And this article will focus not only on varicose veins, the problem is much deeper. Varicose veins are a systemic disease, and systemic disease affects various organs and systems. Especially where the load on the veins is increased. Thus, in a woman who has given birth frequently, the pelvic veins are subject to dilation, in adolescence the boy develops varicocele - dilation of the veins on the scrotum, the veins of the esophagus and stomach dilate, and in chronic constipation hemorrhoids develop. - Hemorrhoidal veins dilate. Why do varicose veins appear in such different places? The leading reason lies in the congenital weakness of the vascular wall, which, exposed to mechanical factors, causes varicose veins.

pronounced varicose veins in the legs

What are primary and secondary varicose veins

Distinguish between primary and secondary varicose veins of the lower extremities. In the first case, the disease develops as a result of weakness of the venous wall or its damage. Another leading factor will be the increased load on the venous system. In this situation, obesity, pregnancy, connective tissue weakness, working in a standing position, etc. can push to varicose veins.

Secondary varicose veins are the result of a mechanical violation of venous outflow. It occurs in injuries, tumors, postthrombotic disease.

Modern data on the causes of varicose veins

The cause of varicose veins is usually hereditary. This is a weakness of the connective tissue of the venous wall. In order for the vein not to dilate under constant strain and remain the same diameter, it has a special frame (or, as women say, a "supporting corset"). According to modern European data, a special protein, collagen type II, works as such a scaffold in the vein wall. If an insufficient amount of this specific protein is inherited, then it is not sufficient in the vein wall. The skeletal function of the vein gradually decreases and begins to expand under constant pressure. Once the vein is enlarged, it will never return to its previous size. Its diameter will get bigger and bigger over time.

Varicose veins - what is it? Mechanism of development of complications in varicose veins

The main function of the human venous system is to return blood from the organs to the heart. With varicose veins, this function begins to suffer, and then the blood in the varicose veins stagnates. This is especially indicative of varicose veins of the lower extremities, when they start to erupt and, when the body is upright, they look like inflated balls, and in neglected cases like "grapes". Stagnation of blood in varicose veins leads to the development of complications of varicose veins - thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, trophic eczema and ulcers. In order to avoid these serious and difficult to treat problems, it is necessary to remove varicose veins. Thus, venous stasis will disappear, and with it the threat of complications.

Another important factor in the formation of varicose veins is the safety of the valvular apparatus of large superficial veins (large and small saphenous veins). Each vein has special valves - these are two thin folds that, when blood flows to the heart, open and then close, preventing the return of blood to the leg. As the vein diameter increases, these valves dilate and begin to leak blood in the opposite direction. Furthermore, with the progression of varicose veins, the nodules of the venous valves simply break and cease to perform their main function.

how the venous valve apparatus works

At this stage of varicose veins, the patient is offered to get rid of varicose veins by innovative methods (RF and EVLK).

There are several modern theories about the formation of varicose veins - these are endocrine, neurotrophic, mechanical, constitutional. But their percentage is so small that it makes no sense to deal with them in more detail.

Summarizing the above, I would like to say once again that varicose veins are a systemic disease that is manifested by weakness of the venous wall frame, and occurs in any organ where the increased load falls on the veins.

How varicose veins and heredity are related

According to modern research, if both parents have varicose veins, then the risk of this disease in children increases by 60%. Therefore, if you have relatives who suffer from varicose veins of the lower extremities, then you need to know the factors that can serve as a stimulus for the formation of varicose veins in you. The life of a modern person is often full of factors for the development of varicose veins, so it is better to undergo a competent medical examination of the venous system once again.

ultrasound diagnosis of varicose veins

Varicose veins - what is it? Diagnosis of varicose veins

A good and correct diagnosis of varicose veins can be performed only by a professional specialist - a phlebologist. At the consultation, the doctor will perform a modern examination that includes palpation, examination, clarification of problems, and in some cases testing (cough, reflux, garter). Based on the obtained results, the doctor makes a preliminary diagnosis, and in order to clarify the diagnosis, he independently performs ultrasound examination, less often contrast phlebography, spiral computed tomography, plethysmography, phlebometry and dopplerometry. After all examinations, the doctor can make a diagnosis: "Venous expansion of the lower extremities".

Varicose veins - what is it? Modern treatment of varicose veins

Treatment of varicose veins may not guarantee a 100% result even after surgery. Innovative European technologies that provide a good treatment result with minimal trauma can be called non-surgical.

modern treatment of varicose veins

Without surgery, varicose veins are treated with several modern medical methods:

  • Laser treatmentor laser coagulation of varicose veins. This method eliminates the return flow of blood to the superficial and perforating veins by using the thermal energy of laser radiation. The whole procedure is performed without incisions, a light guide is inserted through the puncture, then the vein is obliterated. When finished, put on a compression garment. Today, it is the best technology for treating varicose veins.
  • Radiofrequency treatment (RFA, RFO).One of the best innovative methods is aimed at treating the saphenous veins and eliminating reverse blood flow. The entire procedure is performed under anesthesia, without incisions.
  • Sclerotherapy treatment. A drug that injects the vein is injected into a vein.
  • Conservative treatmentincludes bandaging, wearing compression stockings, use of medications, a set of physical exercises.

With a hereditary predisposition to the disease, it is necessary to have an annual consultation with an ultrasound examination by a good phlebologist of European level. Modern treatment of varicose veins will be based on the age of the patient, the severity of the pathology, concomitant diseases and other significant factors.

Varicose veins - what is it? Home treatment

How are varicose veins treated? Many of us ask this question, but you can perform simple procedures at home and avoid severe forms of the disease.

But is it realistic to achieve great success at home? Treatment with folk remedies includes taking various infusions and decoctions, rubbing into the skin of self-prepared ointments, putting compresses soaked in medicinal herbal juices. The most commonly used tincture of wild chestnut, nutmeg, a mixture of garlic and honey, hazelnut tincture, decoction of hop cones, apple cider vinegar. How to fully recover without resorting to the services of a doctor? This question interests many. Unfortunately, the "green pharmacy" does not have the same potential as the experience of doctors with the latest advances in phlebology. Therefore, it is better not to place unnecessary hopes in folk remedies. As a precaution, yes, please. But, unfortunately, they can not seriously help. so many medical techniques have been invented to combat varicose veins.

treatment of varicose veins at home

Varicose veins - what is it? Prevention of varicose veins

  • Avoid blood stagnation, move more, wear loose clothing.
  • Do not overdo it with fever treatments.
  • Track your weight.
  • Wear comfortable shoes.

Now you know what insidious varicose veins are, how to treat this disease and that for prevention you need to be examined by a good phlebologist, adhere to a proper lifestyle and generally monitor your health. These simple tips are relevant for residents of any corner of our country.

Surprisingly, the simplest measures can prevent this disease. Treatment (the cost of which may increase in advanced cases) will be short-lived if you take care of your feet. Doubt? Look at others - many have varicose veins, photos should not even be searched on the Internet. Most patients who are seriously suffering from varicose veins, in the initial manifestations, did not pay attention to the unpleasant symptoms, thinking "maybe it will go away on its own. " Alas, it will not.

The conclusion is self-evident - do not neglect yourself, your body and the phlebologist's office if the first varicose veins appear on your legs.

I’ve seen a lot in my "varicose" experience and I know how to get you on your feet quickly. In the literal sense of the word. So look at your feet immediately and, if you notice anything suspicious, apply for a consultation at a phlebology center. Health and good luck to you!